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A critical part of data analysis is controlling for confounding variables that may affect the validity of the evaluation findings. Using an experimental design with a control condition and random assignment to the study conditions, as we discussed earlier in this course, is the gold standard method of controlling for confounding variables. Whether or not you are able to use a true experimental design with a control group and random assignment, it is important to consider and address the role of any confounding variables.

Examples of confounding variables include:

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