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Intervention Summary

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Capturing Kids' Hearts Teen Leadership Program

The Capturing Kids' Hearts Teen Leadership Program, a curriculum-based intervention for middle and high school youth, is designed to improve students' emotional well-being and social functioning, including improving communication with parents, reducing feelings of loneliness and isolation, improving self-efficacy, and minimizing problem behaviors.

The Capturing Kids' Hearts Teen Leadership Program curriculum, which is based on social-cognitive learning theory, is made up of 50 lessons and includes role-play, group activities, presentations, and projects. Teachers present the lessons to students during 50- to 90-minute school health education classes over a period of one semester or an entire school year. The lessons help students to strengthen their school connectedness by enhancing protective factors and decreasing risk factors. Students also learn how to develop healthy relationships, handle peer pressure, build public speaking skills, make responsible decisions, resolve conflicts, and develop a sense of personal responsibility.

Before implementing the intervention, teachers must successfully complete two trainings:

  • The Capturing Kids' Hearts Teacher Training, which instructs teachers how to model and teach relational and problem-solving skills, communicative competencies, concepts of citizenship, and consequential thinking. It also helps teachers to engage students, develop expectations for student behavior in the classroom, provide effective feedback, and identify and address conflicts.
  • The Teen Leadership Certification Workshop, which builds on the concepts presented in the first training and prepares teachers to implement the program curriculum with both middle and high school students.
In the research reviewed by NREPP, the Capturing Kids' Hearts Teen Leadership Program was implemented over a 10-week period in one study and as a semester-long course in another study.

Descriptive Information

Areas of Interest Mental health promotion
Outcomes Review Date: December 2011
1: Problem behaviors
2: Parent-adolescent communication
3: Self-efficacy
4: Loneliness
5: School connectedness
Outcome Categories Education
Family/relationships
Social functioning
Ages 13-17 (Adolescent)
Genders Male
Female
Races/Ethnicities Black or African American
Hispanic or Latino
White
Race/ethnicity unspecified
Settings School
Other community settings
Geographic Locations Urban
Suburban
Implementation History The Capturing Kids' Hearts program was first developed in 1989 and has impacted approximately 15 million students over the past two decades. The Capturing Kids' Hearts Teen Leadership Program curriculum has been taught to approximately 530,000 students in 26,500 classrooms in 36 States and, internationally, in Australia. The intervention has been evaluated in at least eight case studies and four research trials.
NIH Funding/CER Studies Partially/fully funded by National Institutes of Health: No
Evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies: No
Adaptations No population- or culture-specific adaptations of the intervention were identified by the developer.
Adverse Effects No adverse effects, concerns, or unintended consequences were identified by the developer.
IOM Prevention Categories Universal

Quality of Research
Review Date: December 2011

Documents Reviewed

The documents below were reviewed for Quality of Research. The research point of contact can provide information regarding the studies reviewed and the availability of additional materials, including those from more recent studies that may have been conducted.

Study 1

Danaher, A. C. (2006, August). Character education: The impact of a teen leadership program on student connectedness (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University, Kingsville.

Study 2

Cirillo, K., & Colwell, B. (1993). Effects of a 10-week social-cognitive intervention on selected psychosocial attributes and interpersonal effectiveness of high school students. Unpublished manuscript, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Supplementary Materials

Cirillo-Teverbaugh, K. (1994). Adolescent loneliness: Implications and intervention strategies. Eta Sigma Gamma Monograph Series, 12(1), 1-10.

Outcomes

Outcome 1: Problem behaviors
Description of Measures Problem behaviors were assessed using the 24-item Teen Leadership Student Survey. The instrument contains three 8-item scales that measure school connectedness, behavior and smart choices, and confidence. Using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree," students indicate their agreement with each item (e.g., "I frequently lie to my teachers," "I break rules at home and/or school," "I get in trouble at school").
Key Findings A study was conducted with 9th-grade high school students who received the intervention and 8th-grade middle school students who did not receive the intervention (control group). Both groups were assessed at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the spring semester, when the intervention was delivered. From pre- to posttest, students who received the intervention had a decrease in problem behaviors compared with students in the control group (p < .001), after controlling for baseline differences.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 1.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 2: Parent-adolescent communication
Description of Measures This outcome was assessed using the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale, a 20-item Likert-type assessment designed to measure the extent of openness or freedom to exchange ideas, information, and concerns between generations; the trust and honesty experienced; and the emotional tone of interaction, whether positive or negative. The instrument includes two subscales: (1) open family communication, which measures the positive aspects of parent-adolescent communication with a focus on freedom to exchange ideas, lack of constraint, degree of understanding, and satisfaction experienced in interactions, and (2) problems in family communication, which measures the negative aspects of parent-adolescent communication, such as hesitancy to share and negative styles of interaction.
Key Findings A study was conducted with two sets of high school students: participants who were recruited through schools, churches, and youth organizations to receive the intervention and participants from a youth organization who did not receive the intervention (control group). Both groups were assessed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the 10-week intervention. From pre- to posttest, students who received the intervention had improvements in mother-adolescent communication (p < .001) and father-adolescent communication (p < .001) compared with students in the control group.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 2
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 1.8 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 3: Self-efficacy
Description of Measures Self-efficacy was assessed using the following measures:

  • The Personal Development scale and Attitude Toward Group Work scale from the Leadership and Personal Development Inventory, a 50-item Likert-type assessment designed to measure student perceptions of their own personal development in regard to leadership skill obtainment.
  • The Texas Social Behavior Inventory, a 16-item Likert-type assessment that consists of statements designed to measure the respondent's self-esteem. Using a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (not at all characteristic of me) to 4 (very much characteristic of me), respondents rate themselves on the basis of each statement regarding self-confidence and confidence in social situations.
Key Findings A study was conducted with two sets of high school students: participants who were recruited through schools, churches, and youth organizations to receive the intervention and participants from a youth organization who did not receive the intervention (control group). Both groups were assessed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the 10-week intervention. From pre- to posttest, students who received the intervention had improvements in personal development (p < .001), better attitudes toward group work (p < .001), and higher self-esteem (p < .001) compared with students in the control group.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 2
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 1.6 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 4: Loneliness
Description of Measures Loneliness was assessed using the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, a 20-item Likert-type assessment for measuring several aspects of loneliness. Using scores ranging from 1 (least lonely) to 4 (most lonely), respondents rate each item.
Key Findings A study was conducted with two sets of high school students: participants who were recruited through schools, churches, and youth organizations to receive the intervention and participants from a youth organization who did not receive the intervention (control group). Both groups were assessed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the 10-week intervention. From pre- to posttest, students who received the intervention had a decrease in loneliness compared with students in the control group (p < .001).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 2
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 1.8 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 5: School connectedness
Description of Measures School connectedness was assessed using the 24-item Teen Leadership Student Survey. The instrument contains three 8-item scales that measure school connectedness, behavior and smart choices, and confidence. Five of the 8 items measuring connectedness are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree," students indicate their agreement with each item (e.g., "I feel close to people at this school," "I feel like I am part of this school," "I am happy to be at this school").
Key Findings A study was conducted with 9th-grade high school students who received the intervention and 8th-grade middle school students who did not receive the intervention (control group). Both groups were assessed at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the spring semester, when the intervention was delivered. From pre- to posttest, students who received the intervention had an improvement in their perceptions of school connectedness compared with students in the control group (p < .01), after controlling for baseline differences.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 1.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)

Study Populations

The following populations were identified in the studies reviewed for Quality of Research.

Study Age Gender Race/Ethnicity
Study 1 13-17 (Adolescent) Data not reported/available Data not reported/available
Study 2 13-17 (Adolescent) 54% Female
46% Male
51.9% White
43.9% Hispanic or Latino
3.1% Black or African American
1% Race/ethnicity unspecified

Quality of Research Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the Quality of Research for an intervention's reported results using six criteria:

  1. Reliability of measures
  2. Validity of measures
  3. Intervention fidelity
  4. Missing data and attrition
  5. Potential confounding variables
  6. Appropriateness of analysis

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Quality of Research.

Outcome Reliability
of Measures
Validity
of Measures
Fidelity Missing
Data/Attrition
Confounding
Variables
Data
Analysis
Overall
Rating
1: Problem behaviors 1.5 2.0 0.5 2.5 2.0 3.0 1.9
2: Parent-adolescent communication 4.0 3.5 0.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 1.8
3: Self-efficacy 3.5 2.5 0.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 1.6
4: Loneliness 4.0 3.5 0.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 1.8
5: School connectedness 1.5 2.0 0.5 2.5 2.0 3.0 1.9

Study Strengths

One study used measures with strong psychometric properties, and the measure developed for the other study has face validity. One study addressed confounding variables through analysis that controlled for baseline differences in the outcome variables. The overall statistical analysis used in each study was appropriate.

Study Weaknesses

Neither study used fidelity measures for intervention delivery and student attendance. Missing data and attrition were not adequately addressed in either study. In one study, a larger percentage of intervention participants were older than control participants. Small sample sizes in both studies prevented researchers from investigating the influence of many key variables, including age.

Readiness for Dissemination
Review Date: December 2011

Materials Reviewed

The materials below were reviewed for Readiness for Dissemination. The implementation point of contact can provide information regarding implementation of the intervention and the availability of additional, updated, or new materials.

Flippen, F. (2006). Teen Leadership: High school student manual. College Station, TX: Flippen Group.

Flippen, F. (2007). Teen Leadership: High school course leader's guide. College Station, TX: Flippen Group.

Program Web site, http://www.flippengroup.com

The Flippen Group. (n.d.). Additional information [Handout]. College Station, TX: Author.

The Flippen Group. (n.d.). Teen Leadership certification workshop. College Station, TX: Author.

Readiness for Dissemination Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the intervention's Readiness for Dissemination using three criteria:

  1. Availability of implementation materials
  2. Availability of training and support resources
  3. Availability of quality assurance procedures

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Readiness for Dissemination.

Implementation
Materials
Training and Support
Resources
Quality Assurance
Procedures
Overall
Rating
2.8 2.8 1.8 2.4

Dissemination Strengths

Program materials are developmentally appropriate and focus on engaging adolescents. The course leader's guide includes suggestions for sequencing and pacing lessons. The student manual reinforces the content presented in class. Training is required for implementers before they can deliver the program in the classroom. Ongoing technical assistance is provided via a call center and email during business hours.

Dissemination Weaknesses

The program lacks key implementation information for school and district leadership, including rationale for adoption, program fit within the current school curriculum, and implementer and student selection criteria. Although the required training may strengthen implementation fidelity, implementers must attend two separate off-site trainings (Capturing Kids' Hearts and Teen Leadership) before delivering the program, which may limit accessibility to some new implementers. No fidelity processes or monitoring systems are in place to help users determine whether the curriculum is being implemented as intended. Although the course leader's guide includes samples of student knowledge exams and grading templates, no specific tools or protocols are available to directly facilitate outcome monitoring.

Costs

The cost information below was provided by the developer. Although this cost information may have been updated by the developer since the time of review, it may not reflect the current costs or availability of items (including newly developed or discontinued items). The implementation point of contact can provide current information and discuss implementation requirements.

Item Description Cost Required by Developer
Teen Leadership student manual (high school or middle school version) $8.75 each Yes
3-day, off-site Capturing Kids' Hearts Teacher Training--Retreat
  • $750-$855 per person (depending on time of year) for groups of 30 participants or fewer; cost includes lodging and meals
  • $655-$755 per person (depending on time of year) for groups with more than 30 participants; cost includes lodging and meals
Yes (one Capturing Kids' Hearts training option is required before the Teen Leadership Certification Workshop can be attended)
3-day, off-site Capturing Kids' Hearts Teacher Training--Day model $495-$555 per person (depending on time of year) Yes (one Capturing Kids' Hearts training option is required before the Teen Leadership Certification Workshop can be attended)
1-day, off-site Teen Leadership Certification Workshop (includes the high school or middle school version of the Teen Leadership course leader's guide) $295 per person Yes
Phone or email technical assistance Free No

Additional Information

Trainings can be conducted by trainers who are bilingual in Spanish.

Replications

No replications were identified by the developer.

Contact Information

To learn more about implementation or research, contact:
Michael Holt, Ph.D.
(979) 703-6780
michael.holt@flippengroup.com

Consider these Questions to Ask (PDF, 54KB) as you explore the possible use of this intervention.

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