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Intervention Summary

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Point Break

Point Break is a 1-day workshop for middle and high school students that aims to promote resiliency, break down educational and social barriers between youth, and ultimately, reduce campus violence by teaching the value of conflict resolution and respect for others. The group activities in Point Break are designed to alter eight key attitudes, behaviors, and values: bullying, willingness to reach for help, gossiping, openness of expression, judging others, valuing others, empathy toward others, and hopeful life outlook.

During the 6-hour workshop, students participate in a variety of high-energy activities intended to encourage interaction and engagement. Each activity has a specific goal, such as drawing students away from their usual peer group or challenging students to make and hold eye contact during a listening exercise. Students are also engaged in small and large-group discussions on topics relevant to their life experiences and are given time alone to reflect on their own behaviors. Activities and topics in Point Break are based on the conceptual foundation of positive youth development, which emphasizes the importance of promoting bonding, resilience, emotional and moral competence, a clear and positive identity, and opportunities for prosocial involvement.

A Point Break workshop typically includes 80-120 students, who are transported from school to an off-site facility. Adults from the area may be recruited to participate in the workshops as well.

Implementation of the workshop requires two primary adult facilitators, as well as one adult or student leader for every seven students in attendance. Point Break can be facilitated by a Point Break coach or by school staff with the use of the Point Break Kit for Schools. The kit includes a training binder, a training DVD, access to online resources and template downloads, implementation support, 4 hours of phone consultation with a Point Break coach, and email support. A follow-up curriculum is available to reinforce the skills learned. Implementers also can choose to train and certify one of their staff to become a Point Break coach. For a fee, implementers can purchase the Campus Climate Survey, a standardized assessment of the intervention's effectiveness.

The population in the study submitted for NREPP review included 9th through 12th graders.

Descriptive Information

Areas of Interest Mental health promotion
Outcomes Review Date: May 2012
1: Gossiping
2: Empathy
3: School interpersonal relationships
Outcome Categories Family/relationships
Social functioning
Violence
Ages 13-17 (Adolescent)
Genders Male
Female
Races/Ethnicities Asian
Black or African American
Hispanic or Latino
White
Race/ethnicity unspecified
Settings School
Other community settings
Geographic Locations Suburban
Implementation History Point Break launched in California in 2001 in the greater Sacramento area and Stockton, contracting with two high schools. Since then, Point Break Workshops have been implemented in 54 schools across the United States, serving approximately 100 students in each workshop. Each year, more than 100 workshops are conducted across California, Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington.
NIH Funding/CER Studies Partially/fully funded by National Institutes of Health: No
Evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies: No
Adaptations No population- or culture-specific adaptations of the intervention were identified by the developer.
Adverse Effects No adverse effects, concerns, or unintended consequences were identified by the developer.
IOM Prevention Categories Universal

Quality of Research
Review Date: May 2012

Documents Reviewed

The documents below were reviewed for Quality of Research. The research point of contact can provide information regarding the studies reviewed and the availability of additional materials, including those from more recent studies that may have been conducted.

Study 1

Biddle, D. (2012). Point Break program evaluation: A research study regarding the effectiveness of the Point Break intervention program in four high schools. Final report. Folsom, CA: Biddle Consulting Group, Inc.

Outcomes

Outcome 1: Gossiping
Description of Measures The Relational Climate Profile survey was administered to students before the intervention and 6-10 weeks after the intervention. The survey includes 37 items divided into 8 scales that correspond to the attitudes, behaviors, and values targeted by the intervention: bullying, willingness to reach for help, gossiping, openness of expression, judging others, valuing others, empathy toward others, and hopeful life outlook. The scale for gossiping includes 4 questions:

  • "I am aware of the harmful effect that gossip can have on others."
  • "I frequently gossip about other people."
  • "I rarely try to discourage my friends from gossiping about others."
  • "People who can't handle gossip are just weak."
Responses were on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree, somewhat agree, and strongly agree). A "change score," or improvement rate, for gossiping was obtained by calculating the difference between matched-student pre- and postintervention scores for these 4 items.
Key Findings Students in two suburban California high schools who participated in Point Break were compared with students who received regular class instruction (control group). The students who received the intervention demonstrated a higher improvement rate for gossiping (p = 0.049) than those in the control group.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.1 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 2: Empathy
Description of Measures

The Relational Climate Profile survey was administered to students before the intervention and 6-10 weeks after the intervention. The survey includes 37 items divided into 8 scales that correspond to the attitudes, behaviors, and values targeted by the intervention: bullying, willingness to reach for help, gossiping, openness of expression, judging others, valuing others, empathy toward others, and hopeful life outlook. The scale for empathy includes 5 questions:

  • "Besides my close friends, the feelings of other people are not important."
  • "If other people don't care about my feelings, I shouldn't care about theirs."
  • "Helping others with their problems is too hard; I have enough to deal with just by myself."
  • "Spending my time listening to other people's problems is just a waste."
  • "I'm usually too busy to take the time to listen to other people's problems."
Responses were on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree, somewhat agree, and strongly agree). A "change score," or improvement rate, for empathy was obtained by calculating the difference between matched-student pre- and postintervention scores for each these 5 items and dividing that number by the postintervention score.
Key Findings Students in two suburban California high schools who participated in Point Break were compared with students who received regular class instruction (control group). The students who received the intervention demonstrated a higher improvement rate for empathy toward others (p < 0.001) than those in the control group.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.4 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 3: School interpersonal relationships
Description of Measures The Relational Climate Profile survey was administered to students before the intervention and 6-10 weeks after the intervention. The survey includes 37 items divided into 8 scales that correspond to the attitudes, behaviors, and values targeted by the intervention: bullying, willingness to reach for help, gossiping, openness of expression, judging others, valuing others, empathy toward others, and hopeful life outlook. The construct of school interpersonal relationships was measured using responses to all 37 survey questions. Examples of questions include:

  • Bullying: "I frequently tease/bully other people."
  • Willingness to reach for help: "I am willing to ask for help to deal with my problems."
  • Gossiping: "People who can't handle gossip are just weak."
  • Openness of expression: "Opening up your feelings to others is just a sure way to get hurt."
  • Judging others: "I judge others based on how they look."
  • Valuing others: "I value other people who are not like me."
  • Empathy toward others: "There are other people around me who hurt as badly as I do."
  • Hopeful life outlook: "My future is bright and full of potential."
Responses were on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree, somewhat agree, and strongly agree). A "change score," or improvement rate, for school interpersonal relationships was obtained by calculating the difference between matched-student pre- and postintervention scores for these 37 items and dividing that number by the total postintervention score.
Key Findings Students in two suburban California high schools who participated in Point Break were compared with students who received regular class instruction (control group). The students who received the intervention demonstrated a higher improvement rate for school interpersonal relationships (p = 0.019) than those in the control group.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.4 (0.0-4.0 scale)

Study Populations

The following populations were identified in the studies reviewed for Quality of Research.

Study Age Gender Race/Ethnicity
Study 1 13-17 (Adolescent) 52.8% Female
41% Male
47.8% Black or African American
18% White
15.7% Hispanic or Latino
14% Race/ethnicity unspecified
4.5% Asian

Quality of Research Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the Quality of Research for an intervention's reported results using six criteria:

  1. Reliability of measures
  2. Validity of measures
  3. Intervention fidelity
  4. Missing data and attrition
  5. Potential confounding variables
  6. Appropriateness of analysis

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Quality of Research.

Outcome Reliability
of Measures
Validity
of Measures
Fidelity Missing
Data/Attrition
Confounding
Variables
Data
Analysis
Overall
Rating
1: Gossiping 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.5 3.3 2.1
2: Empathy 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.8 2.5 3.3 2.4
3: School interpersonal relationships 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.8 2.5 3.3 2.4

Study Strengths

The scales of the Relational Climate Profile used to measure empathy and school interpersonal relationships had acceptable evidence of reliability, and all of the survey scales had content validity. A power analysis was performed and, although other options may have also been appropriate, the use of a two-by-two mixed factorial design was acceptable for the study.

Study Weaknesses

The gossiping scale of the Relational Climate Profile had unacceptable levels of internal consistency, and there was no evidence of criterion-related validity. Although the program was implemented at both schools by the same coach, no evidence was presented to show that standardized fidelity instruments were used. The level of attrition was high, and there was no demonstration of postintervention similarity between participants who remained in the study and those lost to attrition. Although a number of confounding variables were considered, student's past experience with the program, which could have had a major impact on the outcomes, was not adequately addressed.

Readiness for Dissemination
Review Date: May 2012

Materials Reviewed

The materials below were reviewed for Readiness for Dissemination. The implementation point of contact can provide information regarding implementation of the intervention and the availability of additional, updated, or new materials.

Biddle Consulting Group. (2012). School climate survey: Summary of results [sample]. Folsom, CA: Author.

Point Break/Campus Life. (2011). Point Break kit for schools: Training binder. Sacramento, CA: Author.

Point Break/Campus Life. (n.d.). Point Break kit for schools: Training DVD. Sacramento, CA: Author.

Additional program materials:

  • Coach Certification Training
  • Point Break Implementation Options
  • Point Break Workshops: Adult Volunteer Expectations
  • Point Break Workshops: Directions for Adult Volunteers
  • Point Break Workshops: Preparation Tasks
  • Point Break Workshops: Recruiting Student Participants
  • Point Break Workshops: Sample parent letter
  • Point Break Workshops: Sample promotional flyer
  • Point Break Workshops: Timeline for Point Break
  • Point Break Workshops: Venue

Point Break Program Web site, http://www.pointbreakonline.com

Point Break School Kit Resources Web site, http://kit.pointbreakonline.com

Readiness for Dissemination Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the intervention's Readiness for Dissemination using three criteria:

  1. Availability of implementation materials
  2. Availability of training and support resources
  3. Availability of quality assurance procedures

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Readiness for Dissemination.

Implementation
Materials
Training and Support
Resources
Quality Assurance
Procedures
Overall
Rating
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

Dissemination Strengths

The program Web site is easy to navigate, clearly describes the intervention, and provides step-by-step implementation guidance. Implementers have the flexibility to choose to have Point Break facilitators implement the intervention in their schools or to deliver the intervention themselves using the Kit for Schools. The carefully detailed Kit for Schools training binder is straightforward, organized, and includes detailed guidance for preparing for the workshop (planning timeline, checklists, recruitment information, and templates) as well as guidance for conducting the workshop (setup directions, implementation guides and scripts, and an evaluation survey and other templates), all of which strengthens implementation fidelity. Four hours of phone consultation services through a senior coach are included. In addition, implementers may choose to obtain coach certification themselves to maintain a high level of implementation fidelity at their program site. A 2-hour introductory training session for school staff and volunteers is included for those sites that chose to have Point Break staff facilitate the intervention. An optional Campus Climate Survey and Summary of Results provide outcome data.

Dissemination Weaknesses

No weaknesses were identified by reviewers.

Costs

The cost information below was provided by the developer. Although this cost information may have been updated by the developer since the time of review, it may not reflect the current costs or availability of items (including newly developed or discontinued items). The implementation point of contact can provide current information and discuss implementation requirements.

Item Description Cost Required by Developer
Point Break Kit for Schools (includes licensing agreement, training binder, training DVD, online resources and template downloads, and 4 hours of consultation with a Point Break coach) One-time licensing fee of $1,495 per school site; district and multiple site licensing available Yes, one implementation option is required
1 day, on-site Point Break workshop delivered by Point Break staff; includes a 2-hour orientation session for school site staff and volunteers $2,625 for up to 100 students, plus travel expenses Yes, one implementation option is required
Point Break follow-up curriculum delivered by school staff or Point Break staff at 4 weeks postintervention $300 plus travel expenses if delivered by Point Break staff No
Point Break coach training and certification $2,500 per person No
Brief technical assistance by email or phone Free No
Campus Climate Survey and Summary of Results $1,500 with purchase of Point Break Kit for Schools or a workshop delivered by Point Break staff, $3,500 if purchased independently No

Additional Information

For workshops facilitated by Point Break, the following staffing will be provided: a workshop director, facilitators to deliver the initial workshop and the follow-up curriculum, guest speakers, and a sound technician.

Replications

No replications were identified by the developer.

Contact Information

To learn more about implementation or research, contact:
Point Break
(916) 813-5710
info@pointbreakonline.org

Consider these Questions to Ask (PDF, 54KB) as you explore the possible use of this intervention.

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