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Intervention Summary

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Dare to be You (DTBY) Bridges Program

The DARE to be You (DTBY) Bridges Program brings together families of children in kindergarten through 2nd grade (ages 5-7) and their teachers to support the transition to formal schooling. The goals of the program are to (1) build strong relationships between parents and teachers and (2) enhance the skills of parents, teachers, and children to improve children's success in school and prevent later problems such as aggression and substance abuse.

The intervention consists of eleven 2.5-hour workshops for parents (or caregivers), children, and teachers, provided over 3-4 months. Other adult family members and siblings of children in the targeted age group may also attend. Moderated by trained facilitators, the workshops are held in a neutral community setting to encourage equal participation from both parents and teachers. The typical group size for each workshop series is about 12 children with their parents and 2-3 teachers.

Each workshop includes a facilitated session for parents and teachers and a separate facilitated session for children. The parent/teacher sessions address:

  • Children's cognitive, literacy, and socio-emotional development
  • Family management skills (for parents) and classroom management skills (for teachers) to foster children's self-regulation and stress reduction
  • Effective communication skills that can be applied at home to reduce parental stress, enhance the mental health of the family, and support school-family relations
  • Practical problem-solving skills

In parallel to the adult sessions, the children's sessions address:

  • Self-efficacy
  • Self-responsibility
  • Cognitive and social development
  • Emotional development (including fostering empathy)
  • Communication skills
  • Problem-solving/decisionmaking skills

At the beginning of each workshop, a 30-minute meal is provided to encourage social interaction among teachers, parents, and facilitators. Following the meal, all participants are engaged in a brief group activity focused on a key construct of the program, such as building children's self-esteem or self-responsibility. The adults and children then meet in their respective session groups. During this part of the workshop, siblings participate in separate age-appropriate activities. Both families and teachers receive financial incentives for attendance.

Prior to implementation of the program, facilitators receive 20-30 hours of on-site training on the program model, fidelity and adaptation issues, and evaluation. Teens from the community may be recruited to serve as "teen educators" who assist in facilitating the workshops. Teens receive at least 6 hours of training and are required to attend meetings before and after each workshop to discuss their responsibilities, debrief, and troubleshoot issues.

The DTBY Bridges Program is a synthesis of two other DTBY models, one for preschoolers (ages 2-5) and their parents that aims to promote resilience in families, and one for teachers that focuses on developing teaching efficacy. The goal of combining these two models into one program was to provide a "bridge" between the family and school developmental contexts. The DTBY program for families with preschoolers has been separately reviewed by NREPP under the program name DARE to be You.

Descriptive Information

Areas of Interest Mental health promotion
Outcomes Review Date: September 2012
1: Parent self-efficacy
2: Parent stress and depression
3: Parent satisfaction with support
4: Parent perception of school climate
5: Parent involvement in child's education
Outcome Categories Education
Family/relationships
Mental health
Social functioning
Ages 18-25 (Young adult)
26-55 (Adult)
55+ (Older adult)
Genders Male
Female
Races/Ethnicities American Indian or Alaska Native
Hispanic or Latino
White
Race/ethnicity unspecified
Settings School
Other community settings
Geographic Locations Rural and/or frontier
Tribal
Implementation History The DTBY Bridges Program was implemented from 2003 to 2007 with eight tribal communities in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah and three small communities in Colorado with Anglo, Hispanic, and Native American populations. Approximately 370 family members at these sites participated in the program.
NIH Funding/CER Studies Partially/fully funded by National Institutes of Health: No
Evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies: No
Adaptations The program has been adapted for rural Hispanic populations.
Adverse Effects No adverse effects, concerns, or unintended consequences were identified by the developer.
IOM Prevention Categories Universal
Selective

Quality of Research
Review Date: September 2012

Documents Reviewed

The documents below were reviewed for Quality of Research. The research point of contact can provide information regarding the studies reviewed and the availability of additional materials, including those from more recent studies that may have been conducted.

Study 1

Miller-Heyl, J., MacPhee, D., Walker, A. K., & Podunovich, R. (2012). Ready families: Effects of a community-based, family-school bridge program. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Rattenborg, K., MacPhee, D., & Miller-Heyl, J. (2012). Correlates of, and intervention effects on, parent-school relationships. Unpublished manuscript.

Supplementary Materials

Dare to be You Bridge Project: Evaluation Manual

Dare to be You Bridges Evaluation Measures

Outcomes

Outcome 1: Parent self-efficacy
Description of Measures Parent self-efficacy was measured using the Competence scale from the Self-Perceptions of the Parental Role (SPPR) inventory. The Competence scale consists of six pairs of contrasting statements, such as:

  • "Some parents have clear ideas about right and wrong ways to rear children. BUT Other parents have doubts about the way they are bringing up their children."
  • "Some parents feel that they are doing a good job of providing for their children's needs. BUT Other parents have doubts about how well they are meeting their kids' needs."
For each pair, respondents select the statement that best describes them, indicating whether that statement is "really true for me" or "sort of true for me."

Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12- and 18-month follow-up.
Key Findings Children, parents, and teachers were randomly assigned to the intervention group or a control group. Families in the control group received a referral list of community agencies related to family support and "practice as usual" at school, which included the option to participate in PTA meetings and periodic teacher conferences. 

From baseline to 12-month follow-up, parent self-efficacy increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (p < .05). No significant difference between groups was reported from baseline to 18-month follow-up.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 2: Parent stress and depression
Description of Measures Parent stress and depression was assessed using two measures:

  • The Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI), a 78-item self-report inventory assessing parental support, satisfaction with parenting, involvement, communication, limit setting, autonomy, and role orientation. Nine items from the PCRI were used in the study; examples include "My life is very stressful right now" and "I sometimes feel overburdened by my responsibilities as a parent." Responses range from 1 ("strongly disagree") to 4 ("strongly agree").
  • An 8-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Items ask how often in the past week respondents experienced symptoms such as "I was bothered by things that usually do not bother me," "I felt depressed," "I felt hopeful about the future," and "My sleep was restless." Responses range from 1 ("none of the time") to 4 ("all of the time").
Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12- and 18-month follow-up.
Key Findings Children, parents, and teachers were randomly assigned to the intervention group or a control group. Families in the control group received a referral list of community agencies related to family support and "practice as usual" at school, which included the option to participate in PTA meetings and periodic teacher conferences. 

From baseline to 12-month follow-up, PCRI scores showed a decrease in stress among parents in the intervention group and a slight increase in stress in the control group (p < .05). No significant group difference in parent stress was reported between groups from baseline to 18-month follow-up.

Similarly, from baseline to 12- and 18-month follow-up, CES-D scores indicated a decrease in depression among parents in the intervention group and a slight increase in depression among parents in the control group (12 months: p < .001; 18 months: p < .005).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.8 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 3: Parent satisfaction with support
Description of Measures Parent satisfaction with support was assessed using the Feelings of Support scale from the Social Network Questionnaire, which includes the following yes/no questions:

  • "Would you want to have more people in your network?"
  • "Would you want to have more people on whom you could depend?"
  • "Would you want to have more people you could talk to or confide in?"
  • "Would you want to have more people to reassure you with problems?"
  • "Would you want to have more people who understand and respect you?"
  • "Would you want to have more people you could get advice from?"
  • "Would you want to have more people who could help out with your child?"
Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12- and 18-month follow-up.
Key Findings Children, parents, and teachers were randomly assigned to the intervention group or a control group. Families in the control group received a referral list of community agencies related to family support and "practice as usual" at school, which included the option to participate in PTA meetings and periodic teacher conferences. 

From baseline to 12- and 18-month follow-up, parent satisfaction with support increased among parents in the intervention group and decreased among parents in the control group (12 months: p < .001; 18 months: p < .05).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.6 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 4: Parent perception of school climate
Description of Measures Parent perception of school climate was assessed using the 12-item School Climate scale. Response options ranged from 1 ("disagree strongly") to 6 ("agree strongly"). Examples of items on this scale include:

  • "My child's teacher(s) are interested in my child's progress."
  • "The teacher makes me feel comfortable when we meet."
  • "I feel welcomed at my child's school."
  • "There is an adult at school who my child can talk to about problems."
Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12-month follow-up.
Key Findings Children, parents, and teachers were randomly assigned to the intervention group or a control group. Families in the control group received a referral list of community agencies related to family support and "practice as usual" at school, which included the option to participate in PTA meetings and periodic teacher conferences. 

From baseline to 12-month follow-up, perception of a welcoming school climate increased among parents in the intervention group and decreased among parents in the control group (p < .05).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 5: Parent involvement in child's education
Description of Measures Parents' involvement in their child's education was assessed using a 7-item instrument developed for the study based on previous research. The first 2 items asked parents how many days per week, on average, they do the following:

  • "I talk to my child about what he/she is learning in school."
  • "I read with my child."
For the remaining 5 items, parents indicated how often they did the following during the current school year, on a scale from 0 ("never") to 2 ("3+ times"):

  • "I volunteered in my child's classroom."
  • "I asked the teacher how I can help my child with school work."
  • "I went to parent-teacher conferences."
  • "I went to extra-curricular activities (plays, sports, musicals, etc.)."
  • "I visited my child's classroom."
Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12-month follow-up.
Key Findings Children, parents, and teachers were randomly assigned to the intervention group or a control group. Families in the control group received a referral list of community agencies related to family support and "practice as usual" at school, which included the option to participate in PTA meetings and periodic teacher conferences. 

From baseline to 12-month follow-up, parents' involvement in their child's education increased among parents in the intervention group and decreased among parents in the control group (p < .005).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.5 (0.0-4.0 scale)

Study Populations

The following populations were identified in the studies reviewed for Quality of Research.

Study Age Gender Race/Ethnicity
Study 1 18-25 (Young adult)
26-55 (Adult)
55+ (Older adult)
64% Male
22% Female
71.1% Race/ethnicity unspecified
16.2% American Indian or Alaska Native
10.4% White
2.3% Hispanic or Latino

Quality of Research Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the Quality of Research for an intervention's reported results using six criteria:

  1. Reliability of measures
  2. Validity of measures
  3. Intervention fidelity
  4. Missing data and attrition
  5. Potential confounding variables
  6. Appropriateness of analysis

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Quality of Research.

Outcome Reliability
of Measures
Validity
of Measures
Fidelity Missing
Data/Attrition
Confounding
Variables
Data
Analysis
Overall
Rating
1: Parent self-efficacy 3.8 3.8 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.9
2: Parent stress and depression 3.5 3.5 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.8
3: Parent satisfaction with support 2.8 3.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.6
4: Parent perception of school climate 3.5 3.8 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.9
5: Parent involvement in child's education 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.5

Study Strengths

Most of the outcome measures used in the study, including the SPPR, PCRI, CES-D, and School Climate scale, are well researched and have good psychometric properties. The Social Network Questionnaire Feelings of Support scale has acceptable levels of reliability and validity. The fidelity manual is clear, well written, and easy to follow. A comparison of the intervention and control groups at baseline using more than 30 variables showed no significant differences between groups. Appropriate statistical analyses were used.

Study Weaknesses

The instrument used to assess parents' involvement in their child's education had items adapted from other scales, raising questions of how well the reliability and validity data for those scales apply to this measure. Fidelity measures were identified, but the psychometric properties of these measures and quantitative adherence data were not reported. Some confounding variables were not addressed. For example, in smaller schools with one or two classrooms per grade level, randomization into groups was done at the school level, while in larger schools, randomization was done at the classroom level, which opens the possibility of contamination across intervention and control conditions.

Readiness for Dissemination
Review Date: September 2012

Materials Reviewed

The materials below were reviewed for Readiness for Dissemination. The implementation point of contact can provide information regarding implementation of the intervention and the availability of additional, updated, or new materials.

Dare to be You Bridge Project: Evaluation Manual

Dare to be You Bridge Project: Replication Guide

Dare to be You Bridges Evaluation Measures

Dare to be You Bridges: Training Outline [PowerPoint slides]

Fidelity and Adaptation: A Careful Journey [PowerPoint slides]

Miller-Heyl, J., & Cox, D. (2007). DARE to be You Bridges curriculum: Children's activity manual. Cortez: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.

Miller-Heyl, J., & Cox, D. (2007). DARE to be You Bridges curriculum: Parent and teacher training manual. Cortez: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.

Preston, J. H., Mandel, T., & Miller-Heyl, J. L. (2003). DARE to be You: Teen facilitator training manual. Fort Collins: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development.

Program Web site, http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/DTBY/

Readiness for Dissemination Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the intervention's Readiness for Dissemination using three criteria:

  1. Availability of implementation materials
  2. Availability of training and support resources
  3. Availability of quality assurance procedures

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Readiness for Dissemination.

Implementation
Materials
Training and Support
Resources
Quality Assurance
Procedures
Overall
Rating
3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Dissemination Strengths

The Replication Guide provides clear rationale and direction for implementing the intervention, covering all the core components, staffing requirements, logistics, participant referral processes and resources, and fidelity measures. The Replication Guide correlates well with the training manuals, which are comprehensive and include examples and tips for delivery. Information on implementation and training options and pricing are provided on the program Web site. Fidelity issues are discussed during the required on-site implementation training. The Evaluation Manual provides a comprehensive overview of the evaluation process and available outcome monitoring tools. It also offers tips on how to introduce these tools to participants to achieve a high response rate.

Dissemination Weaknesses

With the exception of the Children's Activity Manual, the implementation and training materials are largely text-based, containing few graphics and multimedia elements. It is unclear how the data derived from the quality assurance tools can be used to improve program delivery.

Costs

The cost information below was provided by the developer. Although this cost information may have been updated by the developer since the time of review, it may not reflect the current costs or availability of items (including newly developed or discontinued items). The implementation point of contact can provide current information and discuss implementation requirements.

Item Description Cost Required by Developer
Dare to be You Bridges Curriculum: Parent and Teacher Training Manual $65 each Yes
Dare to be You Bridges Curriculum: Children's Activity Manual $65 each Yes
DARE to be You: Teen Facilitator Training Manual $30 each No
Workshop log sheets Free Yes
Preimplementation consultation Free Yes
20-30 hours of on-site implementation training (includes one Replication Manual and one Evaluation Manual) $5,500 for up to 35 participants (with a minimum of 5 participants), plus travel expenses Yes
Evaluation training Included with on-site implementation training, if needed No
Technical assistance by telephone or email First 10 hours free, then $100 per hour No
Review of two videotaped sessions and log sheets, with coaching and feedback Up to 2 hours free, when provided in conjunction with free technical assistance No
Consultation to discuss evaluation needs/services Free No
Evaluation data spreadsheet template Free No
Data entry services $15 per hour No
Data analysis and report writing services $100 per hour, for a total cost of $300-$400 for a single implementation site No

Additional Information

Supplemental grade-differentiated manuals ($65 each) are available for siblings of 5- to 7-year-olds participating in the DTBY Bridges Program.

Replications

No replications were identified by the developer.

Contact Information

To learn more about implementation, contact:
Jan Miller-Heyl, M.S.
(970) 222-9649
jan.miller-heyl@colostate.edu

To learn more about research, contact:
David McPhee, Ph.D.
(970) 491-5503
david.macphee@colostate.edu

Consider these Questions to Ask (PDF, 54KB) as you explore the possible use of this intervention.

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